Latest Oil & Gas News: Carbon Capture (CCUS)

The latest oil & gas news related to carbon capture, utilisation and storage around the world on theclimateconnection.org

Update: 18th June 2021

The US launches a research challenge for DAC at COP26; minor CCUS developments in the UK are praised as progress

COP26 is the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference. Ahead of this event, countries around the world are making pledges to reduce emissions and combat global warming. For example, the US is planning a research challenge to develop direct air capture (DAC) technology. It will launch as part of Mission Innovation, a wider climate research and development initiative.1

The DAC research challenge will set targets for research institutions and labs across the globe. Various projects are working on developing DAC in the US, Europe and Australia.2 The US-led initiative could help collate these findings and bring DAC closer to realisation at the commercial scale.

Meanwhile, in the UK, minor CCUS developments are praised as progress in the media. For example, the Drax plant aims to deploy bioenergy with CCS. It recently licensed technology from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. This has been described as taking “another step” and “game-changing”.3 The UK still has no CCUS facilities in operation.4

Update: 11th June 2021

Australian government to give AUD $50 million to six CCS projects, including to gas and coal companies

The Australian government has announced which six projects will receive a share of their AUD $50 million Carbon Capture, Use and Storage (CCUS) Development Fund. Some critics have pointed out that the money “may provide an excuse to extend the extraction and use of fossil fuels”. They argue that the money would be better spent on accelerating renewable energy sources instead.5

These criticisms hold particular value when considering that two of the recipients of the fund are fossil fuel companies. Natural gas company Santos will receive public support to the tune of AUD $15 million. It will go towards its Moomba project in the Cooper Basin in South Australia, which aims to store 1.7 million tonnes of CO2 per year.6 However, Santos’ CEO, Kevin Gallagher, warns that “carbon credits are essential to make it stack up economically”.7

Similarly, AUD $5 million is going towards a coal power project run by fossil fuel giant Glencore. The funds will go towards trialling the viability of CCS at a Queensland coal-fired power station.8 Therefore, both of these projects come with caveats. There is no guarantee that either will actually capture and sequester CO2. 

Update: 4th June 2021

The US, South Korean and Dutch governments give stimulus to CCS projects

CCS projects around the world are receiving further governmental support. For example, the Dutch government is providing USD $2.4 billion in subsidies for CCS. It is part of a plan to reduce emissions from an industrial cluster around the Rotterdam port area. Captured CO2 will be transported to empty gas fields in the North Sea. The money will go to oil giants Shell and ExxonMobil to develop the CCS facility. However, the project is not due to start until 2024.9

Meanwhile, South Korea is planning a demonstration project of CCS in an offshore gas field. Eight Korean companies will contribute to the project which will be led by Korean National Oil. The plan is to capture 362,874 tonnes of CO2 per year from the Donghae Gas Field. It will be transported and injected into depleted wells from 2022.10

Likewise, the US government is awarding USD $4 million to enhance the safety and security of four CCS projects. The aim of these projects is to reduce the risk of seismic disruptions and CO2 leakage from underground storage. They should help prevent CO2 from escaping from geological formations following events like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.11

Update: 21st May 2021

More enthusiastic plans unveiled for CCUS in the UK, but Britain still has no CCUS in operation

It has been 16 years since the UK first proposed a large CCUS project. Yet Britain still has no CCUS facilities in operation. Nevertheless, businesses and the media continue to promise that CCUS is “on the verge of becoming reality”.12 

False hope stories regularly promote CCUS as a tangible climate change solution. For example, The Herald ran a story on a recent “boost” for Aberdeenshire CCUS. In reality, the project is still bidding for government support. The “boost” the project has received is the appointment of a former chief executive of energy regulator Ofgem.13

Similarly, Business Live published an article on UK-based waste and recycling firm, Viridor. The company plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2040. It says that it will invest in CCUS to achieve this. The article refers to its ambitions of becoming “the UK’s first waste and recycling company with net negative carbon emissions”.14 

Companies undoubtedly need to take action to cut their emissions. However, publicising and praising companies for merely planning to do this with CCUS diverts attention away from other more readily available solutions to climate change. CCUS projects take many years from conception to completion.15 The best way to tackle global warming is to cut fossil fuel emissions. Relying on a nascent and largely unproven technology is a dangerous distraction.

Update: 14th May 2021

SSE and Equinor plan to develop Scotland’s first gas-fired power station with CCS but receive criticism from environmentalists

British energy company SSE and Norwegian petroleum refining company Equinor are developing a new gas-fired power plant with carbon capture facilities.16 Peterhead Power Station could be one of the UK’s first CCS-equipped power stations. Plans are for the plant to come online in 2026. However, this depends on a final investment decision.17

If completed, it could capture as much as 1.5 million tonnes of CO2 annually. That equates to 15 per cent of the UK government’s yearly carbon capture target by 2030.18 It is also equivalent to taking 60 million cars off the road every year, according to SSE.19

SSE already operates a combined cycle gas turbine power station at the Aberdeenshire site. The station is seeking to decarbonise.20 Peterhead emitted 1.9 million tonnes of CO2 in 2018.21 It is located conveniently close to the Acorn CCS project. This makes it easy for the CO2 to be transported and stored 100 kilometres offshore below the North Sea.22

But, environmental campaigners are criticising the project. They say the attempts to decarbonise Peterhead power station simply delay its “inevitable closure”. It is the last power station in Scotland to run on fossil fuels.23 

Update: 6th May 2021

Big players predicted to dominate the carbon capture and storage sector

London-based data analytics and consulting company, GlobalData, predicts that the carbon capture sector will become increasingly dominated by oil giants. Small and medium-sized oil and gas producers are less likely to incorporate carbon capture and storage. This is because these smaller companies will need to spend more resources relative to their size compared to big players like Exxon Mobil.24

Larger fossil fuel companies have significant infrastructure and capital advantages over smaller competitors. GlobalData recommends that governments incentivise carbon capture to promote investments from less profitable operators. More regulation is also needed to encourage the oil and gas industry to invest in carbon capture and storage.25

The lack of interest in carbon capture from all but the biggest oil giants has led to the creation of the largest incentive prize in history. Elon Musk is offering USD $100 million to anyone who can demonstrate direct air capture technology. To win, the design must be able to remove at least 1,000 tonnes of CO2 per year. They must also show a plan to scale up to capturing one billion tonnes of CO2.26 The prize money and publicity around the XPRIZE Carbon Removal competition may help develop carbon capture and storage for smaller players, despite GlobalData’s predictions.

Update: 30th April 2021

Exxon Mobil proposes new CCUS project

American multinational oil and gas corporation Exxon Mobil is proposing an ambitious new carbon capture and storage project. The Houston Ship Channel CCS aims to capture and store 907 million tonnes of CO2 each year by 2040. It would increase the US’ carbon capture capacity more than seven times over. This equates to the amount of CO2 that 120 million acres of forest can sequester.27 

Houston Ship Channel CCUS will require both public and private investment of around USD $100 billion. It will capture CO2 emissions from petrochemical plants and store them beneath the Gulf of Mexico. Pressure on the fossil fuel industry to invest more into activities with a lower carbon footprint appears to be behind the move.28

Exxon Mobil already owns 20 per cent of the global carbon capture capacity. They claim responsibility for “40 per cent of the total anthropogenic CO2 captured to date”.29 The Houston Ship Channel CCS project will be one of the world’s largest CCUS projects in the world.30 It shows the faith Exxon Mobil is placing in CCUS as a carbon reduction approach.   

Update: 23rd April 2021

Scottish CCUS project receives boost; the government makes unfounded capacity predictions

Shell and Harbour Energy have become equal partners with Storegga in Scotland’s Acorn Project. The Acord Project is one of the largest and most developed CCUS endeavours in the UK.31 It should become operational by the mid-2020s.32 

CO2 will be captured from the St Fergus gas terminal in Aberdeenshire. The terminal processes oil and gas from North Sea offshore fields and platforms. Captured CO2 will then be transported through the Goldeneye pipeline for underground storage in an old gas field.33

By the Acorn Project’s own estimates, five to six million tonnes of CO2 will be captured and stored by 2030. Yet, the Scottish government has claimed that the facility could store 10 million tonnes of the greenhouse gas by 2030. This leap epitomises the unreasonable optimism governments have often placed in CCS to solve the issue of climate change. The unfounded claim by the Scottish government has subsequently been criticised as an attempt to make its efforts add up to net-zero targets.34

Update: 15th April 2021

CCUS technologies selected for new large-scale US project

Wabash Valley Resources is a repurposed gasification plant in Indiana.35 They are the only hydrogen production facility in the US state of Indiana.36 The plant will use Honeywell UOP CCUS technologies.37 They aim to capture and sequester 1.65 million tonnes of carbon dioxide annually.38

Plans to convert the hydrogen production facility and carbon capture and sequestration project began in 2016.39 Investment for the project closed in 2019. Conversion of the plant and construction of the CCUS facility should complete in 2022.40 Cost predictions are USD $600 million.41 If the project reaches completion, it will be one of the largest CCUS facilities in the US.42

Update: 8th April 2021

GNV DL updates CCS transportation safety guidelines

GNV DL has issued new safety procedures for transporting CO2 through pipelines for CCS projects.43 The new guidance reflects an assumption by GNV DL that CCS operations will increase worldwide in the coming years.44

The classification society is a recognised advisor for the maritime industry.45 They provide testing, certification and technical advisory services to the energy value chain, including oil and gas.46 Without GNV DL certification, certain cargo ships, offshore rigs and electricity power grids would not be able to operate.47

GNV DL’s updated recommended practice gives guidance to the industry on transporting CO2.48 It ensures that the greenhouse gas can be transported safely.49 Pipeline operators must, for example, fully assess potential threats, failure mechanisms and the possibility of pipeline failures to maintain safe operation.50

Update: 31st March 2021

US Senate bills aim to develop the CCUS industry

Two new bills, aimed at supporting the CCUS industry, were introduced to the US Senate this week.51 

The Storing CO2 And Lowering Emissions (SCALE) Act intends to assist US firms to acquire CCUS infrastructure.52 For instance, funding and grants will be granted to expand transportation infrastructure to move captured CO2 to storage sites.53 It is part of a wider programme directed at cutting CO2 emissions.54  

Meanwhile, the Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage Tax Credit Amendments Act expands the remits of the 45Q tax credit.55 The 45Q tax credit provides companies with a deduction for every tonne of sequestered carbon.56 This includes carbon that is not stored permanently but instead is used for enhanced oil recovery.57 

The Act enlarges the time in which projects can begin construction and still qualify for the credit until the end of 2030. It also expands the scope for which facilities receive the 45Q tax credit.58 

Furthermore, it raises the value of the 45Q credit per metric tonne of CO2 captured and stored. CO2 stored underground receives a higher credit value than carbon used in other industries. 59

These measures may encourage more companies to install CCUS facilities. They have the potential to incentivise companies with existing facilities to store more of the carbon permanently.

Update: March 25th, 2021

European CCUS projects move forward

Ahead of COP26 (November 1, 2021 to November 12, 2021), the UK moves forward with its plans for CCUS facilities. Two large-scale projects have received GBP £34 million from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. Humber Zero and Zero Carbon Humber will use the government’s funding to develop CCUS technology in a UK pollution hotspot. Commitment has also been made to offshore storage and transportation via the Northern Endurance Partnership.60

Early-stage CCUS projects in Norway are also making progress, without government support. Baker Hughes and Horisont Energi have signed a memorandum of understanding for the Polaris project.61 The two companies will explore new processes and technologies with the Polaris carbon storage project.62 Its total carbon storage capacity is anticipated to exceed 100 million tonnes.63 It is currently in the concept phase. The construction phase is predicted for the second half of 2022.64

Update: March 19th, 2021

UK government funds worlds’ first low carbon industrial cluster

The UK government has awarded GBP £72 million to HyNet North West to create the world’s first low carbon industrial cluster. It is located in the northwest of England where the country’s energy-intensive advanced manufacturing and chemical production is concentrated. Funding for the project is part of the UK government’s 10-point plan for a green industrial revolution.65

The intention is for HyNet North West to capture and store over ten million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year by 2030.66 It is expected to become operational in 2025,67 but CCUS projects have a history of suffering from delays.68

Similarly, the oil and gas heavyweight, Chevron, is partnering with Schlumberger and Microsoft to develop a bioenergy plant with CCUS in California.69 Once completed, the facility should remove 300,000 tonnes of CO2 per year.70 A final investment decision will not be made until 2022, however, so completion may still be a long way off.71

March 12th, 2021

Is the oil and gas industry sustainable?

The oil and gas industry’s operations account for 9 per cent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.72 They also produce fossil fuels that create an additional 33 per cent of global emissions.73 By directly and indirectly contributing 42 per cent of the emissions responsible for global warming, it is safe to say that oil and gas are unsustainable. 


CCUS and net-zero emissions targets

Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) is one way the fossil fuel industry hopes to meet net-zero emissions targets. The latest oil and gas news suggests that despite “years of slow progress, new investment incentives and strengthened climate goals are building new momentum behind CCUS”.74 But, as the world strives to limit global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, action is now urgently required.

How do CCUS developments affect the oil and gas industry? 

CCUS developments could facilitate the continual burning of fossil fuel indefinitely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has warned of the dangers of a planetary temperature increase above 1.5°C.75 196 Parties from around the world agreed under the Paris Agreement to aim to peak greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate-neutral world by mid-century.76 By promising to capture and store their carbon emissions, the oil and gas industry can persist in its operations, without deterring environmentally conscious investors.

Is CCUS the solution to an environmentally-friendly oil and gas industry?

The International Energy Agency regards CCUS as the only environmentally-friendly technology solution for the oil and gas industry. Their Sustainable Development Scenario anticipates that CCUS will supply 15 per cent of the cumulative emissions reduction for the global power sector until 2070. To achieve this, they need to increase the amount of CO2 captured from fossil fuel power plants to 220 million tonnes in 2030 and 4.0 billion tonnes in 2070.77

However, these projections seem disproportionate to the actual capacity and capabilities of current CCUS technology. There are just 19 large-scale industrial and two large-scale CCUS power facilities in operation today. Their combined capacity is about 40 million tonnes of CO2 captured annually. To stay on a 1.5°C rise climate trajectory, the carbon capture capacity of CCUS facilities would need to increase by a factor of 35. Large capital projects, such as these, require six to ten years from conception to commissioning. New projects would, therefore, need immediate approval and investment for realistic implementation.78

Oil and gas news: Clean energy alternatives

Renewable energy sources, including wind, solar and hydropower, offer a clean alternative to fossil fuels, such as oil and gas. They are the only category of energy that grew globally at double digits over the past ten years.79 Their average annual growth rate over the last decade was 13.7 per cent.80 Between 2009 and 2019, global consumption of renewables almost quadrupled from 8.2 to 29.0 exajoules of energy.81

Continued transition to renewable energies would undoubtedly reduce global CO2 emissions. Moreover, it would not require massive and immediate investment into nascent and uncertain technologies, like carbon capture, utilisation and storage.

Sources

  1. Science|Business. (n.d.). US to launch research challenge to capture CO2 directly from the atmosphere at COP26 climate change conference. [online] Available at: https://sciencebusiness.net/news/us-launch-research-challenge-capture-co2-directly-atmosphere-cop26-climate-change-conference [Accessed 18 Jun. 2021].
  2. Science|Business. (n.d.). US to launch research challenge to capture CO2 directly from the atmosphere at COP26 climate change conference. [online] Available at: https://sciencebusiness.net/news/us-launch-research-challenge-capture-co2-directly-atmosphere-cop26-climate-change-conference [Accessed 18 Jun. 2021].
  3. Mehta2021-06-14T08:30:00+01:00, A. (n.d.). Drax plant to use Mitsubishi’s carbon capture technology in pursuit of negative emissions. [online] Chemistry World. Available at: https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/drax-plant-to-use-mitsubishis-carbon-capture-technology-in-pursuit-of-negative-emissions/4013842.article [Accessed 18 Jun. 2021].
  4. Editor, E.G., Energy (n.d.). Carbon capture on the verge of becoming reality. www.thetimes.co.uk. [online] Available at: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/carbon-capture-on-the-verge-of-becoming-reality-qhwwp7g86.
  5. Bloch, M. (2021). Millions Given To Carbon Capture, Use And Storage Projects. [online] Solar Quotes Blog. Available at: https://www.solarquotes.com.au/blog/ccs-grants-australia-mb2031/ [Accessed 11 Jun. 2021].
  6. IChemE (n.d.). Australia announces winners of carbon capture fund. [online] www.thechemicalengineer.com. Available at: https://www.thechemicalengineer.com/news/australia-announces-winners-of-carbon-capture-fund/ [Accessed 11 Jun. 2021].
  7. IChemE (n.d.). Santos greenlights Australia’s largest oil and gas investment in close to a decade. [online] www.thechemicalengineer.com. Available at: https://www.thechemicalengineer.com/news/santos-greenlights-australia-s-largest-oil-and-gas-investment-in-close-to-a-decade/ [Accessed 11 Jun. 2021].
  8. the Guardian. (2021). Gas and coal companies among recipients of $50m in Coalition grants from carbon capture fund. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/jun/08/gas-and-coal-companies-among-recipients-of-50m-in-coalition-grants-from-carbon-capture-fund [Accessed 11 Jun. 2021].
  9. www.aljazeera.com. (n.d.). Dutch g’ovt gives $2.4bn in subsidies to fund carbon capture plan. [online] Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/economy/2021/5/10/dutch-govt-gives-2-4bn-in-subsidies-to-fund-carbon-capture-plan [Accessed 4 Jun. 2021].
  10. The Maritime Executive. (n.d.). Korea to Demonstrate Carbon Capture and Storage in Offshore Gas Field. [online] Available at: https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/korea-to-demonstrate-carbon-capture-and-storage-in-offshore-gas-field [Accessed 4 Jun. 2021].
  11. Energy Live News. (2021). US awards $4m to enhance safety and security of carbon storage. [online] Available at: https://www.energylivenews.com/2021/06/01/us-awards-4m-to-enhance-safety-and-security-of-carbon-storage/ [Accessed 4 Jun. 2021].
  12. Editor, E.G., Energy (n.d.). Carbon capture on the verge of becoming reality. www.thetimes.co.uk. [online] Available at: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/carbon-capture-on-the-verge-of-becoming-reality-qhwwp7g86 [Accessed 21 May 2021].
  13. HeraldScotland. (n.d.). Scottish carbon capture scheme backed by energy industry heavy-hitter. [online] Available at: https://www.heraldscotland.com/business_hq/19309195.boost-aberdeenshire-carbon-capture-storage-project/ [Accessed 21 May 2021].
  14. Arthur, A. (2021). Waste and recycling firm Viridor outlines carbon negative plans. [online] Business Live. Available at: https://www.business-live.co.uk/enterprise/viridor-plans-become-uks-first-20641415 [Accessed 21 May 2021].
  15. www.energypolicy.columbia.edu. (n.d.). Columbia | SIPA Center on Global Energy Policy | Net-Zero and Geospheric Return: Actions Today for 2030 and Beyond. [online] Available at: https://www.energypolicy.columbia.edu/research/report/net-zero-and-geospheric-return-actions-today-2030-and-beyond.
  16. Reuters. (2021). SSE, Equinor plan new gas power plant with carbon capture in Scotland. [online] Available at: https://www.reuters.com/business/sustainable-business/sse-equinor-plan-new-gas-power-plant-with-carbon-capture-scotland-2021-05-11/ [Accessed 14 May 2021].
  17. Lewis (j_lewis), J. (2021). Equinor teams up with SSE for Scottish carbon capture and storage project | Upstream Online. [online] Upstream Online | Latest oil and gas news. Available at: https://www.upstreamonline.com/energy-transition/equinor-teams-up-with-sse-for-scottish-carbon-capture-and-storage-project/2-1-1009358 [Accessed 14 May 2021].
  18. Reuters. (2021). SSE, Equinor plan new gas power plant with carbon capture in Scotland. [online] Available at: https://www.reuters.com/business/sustainable-business/sse-equinor-plan-new-gas-power-plant-with-carbon-capture-scotland-2021-05-11/ [Accessed 14 May 2021].
  19. Lewis (j_lewis), J. (2021). Equinor teams up with SSE for Scottish carbon capture and storage project | Upstream Online. [online] Upstream Online | Latest oil and gas news. Available at: https://www.upstreamonline.com/energy-transition/equinor-teams-up-with-sse-for-scottish-carbon-capture-and-storage-project/2-1-1009358 [Accessed 14 May 2021].
  20. Reuters. (2021). SSE, Equinor plan new gas power plant with carbon capture in Scotland. [online] Available at: https://www.reuters.com/business/sustainable-business/sse-equinor-plan-new-gas-power-plant-with-carbon-capture-scotland-2021-05-11/ [Accessed 14 May 2021].
  21. Cameron, G. (n.d.). Carbon capture “just delays pulling plug” on gas plant. www.thetimes.co.uk. [online] Available at: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/carbon-capture-just-delays-pulling-plug-on-gas-plant-pqkcrdzkk [Accessed 14 May 2021].
  22. Lewis (j_lewis), J. (2021). Equinor teams up with SSE for Scottish carbon capture and storage project | Upstream Online. [online] Upstream Online | Latest oil and gas news. Available at: https://www.upstreamonline.com/energy-transition/equinor-teams-up-with-sse-for-scottish-carbon-capture-and-storage-project/2-1-1009358.
  23. Cameron, G. (n.d.). Carbon capture “just delays pulling plug” on gas plant. www.thetimes.co.uk. [online] Available at: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/carbon-capture-just-delays-pulling-plug-on-gas-plant-pqkcrdzkk.
  24. Oilfield Technology. (2021). GlobalData: carbon capture and storage dominated by oil giants with no room for smaller operators. [online] Available at: https://www.oilfieldtechnology.com/special-reports/05052021/globaldata-carbon-capture-and-storage-dominated-by-oil-giants-with-no-room-for-smaller-operators/ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
  25. Oilfield Technology. (2021). GlobalData: carbon capture and storage dominated by oil giants with no room for smaller operators. [online] Available at: https://www.oilfieldtechnology.com/special-reports/05052021/globaldata-carbon-capture-and-storage-dominated-by-oil-giants-with-no-room-for-smaller-operators/ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
  26. XPRIZE. (n.d.). XPRIZE Carbon Removal. [online] Available at: https://www.xprize.org/prizes/elonmusk.
  27. ExxonMobil. (n.d.). LCS. [online] Available at: https://corporate.exxonmobil.com/Energy-and-innovation/Low-Carbon-Solutions#Ourplan [Accessed 29 Apr. 2021].
  28. OilPrice.com. (n.d.). Exxon Proposes $100 Billion Carbon Capture Project. [online] Available at: https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Exxon-Proposes-100B-Carbon-Capture-Project.html [Accessed 29 Apr. 2021].
  29. ExxonMobil. (n.d.). LCS. [online] Available at: https://corporate.exxonmobil.com/Energy-and-innovation/Low-Carbon-Solutions#Ourplan.
  30. Acs.org. (2021). [online] Available at: https://cen.acs.org/environment/greenhouse-gases/Exxon-Mobil-proposes-huge-carbon/99/i15 [Accessed 29 Apr. 2021].
  31. HeraldScotland. (n.d.). Giants up support for carbon capture project. [online] Available at: https://www.heraldscotland.com/business_hq/19239462.giants-support-carbon-capture-project/ [Accessed 21 Apr. 2021].
  32. Viaintermedia.com (n.d.). Hydrogen – Storegga, Shell, and Harbour Energy Equal Partners in Acorn Project. [online] Renewable Energy Magazine, at the heart of clean energy journalism. Available at: https://www.renewableenergymagazine.com/hydrogen/storegga-shell-and-harbour-energy-equal-partners-20210419 [Accessed 21 Apr. 2021].
  33. HeraldScotland. (n.d.). Giants up support for carbon capture project. [online] Available at: https://www.heraldscotland.com/business_hq/19239462.giants-support-carbon-capture-project/ [Accessed 21 Apr. 2021].
  34. theferret.scot. (n.d.). Carbon capture: Scottish Government’s figures “speculative.” [online] Available at: https://theferret.scot/scottish-government-carbon-capture-climate-change/ [Accessed 21 Apr. 2021].
  35. H2-View (2021). Leading US carbon capture project set to produce clean hydrogen. [online] Hydrogen View. Available at: https://www.h2-view.com/story/leading-us-carbon-capture-project-set-to-produce-clean-hydrogen/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2021].
  36. Wabash Valley Resources LLC. (n.d.). Wabash Valley Resources LLC. [online] Available at: https://www.wvresc.com/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2021].
  37. H2-View (2021). Leading US carbon capture project set to produce clean hydrogen. [online] Hydrogen View. Available at: https://www.h2-view.com/story/leading-us-carbon-capture-project-set-to-produce-clean-hydrogen/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2021].
  38. H2-View (2021). Leading US carbon capture project set to produce clean hydrogen. [online] Hydrogen View. Available at: https://www.h2-view.com/story/leading-us-carbon-capture-project-set-to-produce-clean-hydrogen/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2021].
  39. H2-View (2021). Leading US carbon capture project set to produce clean hydrogen. [online] Hydrogen View. Available at: https://www.h2-view.com/story/leading-us-carbon-capture-project-set-to-produce-clean-hydrogen/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2021].
  40. IChemE (n.d.). Wabash Valley Resources closes investment for CCS project. [online] www.thechemicalengineer.com. Available at: https://www.thechemicalengineer.com/news/wabash-valley-resources-closes-investment-for-ccs-project/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2021].
  41. IChemE (n.d.). Wabash Valley Resources closes investment for CCS project. [online] www.thechemicalengineer.com. Available at: https://www.thechemicalengineer.com/news/wabash-valley-resources-closes-investment-for-ccs-project/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2021].
  42. Honeywell (n.d.). Honeywell Technology Enables Large U.S. Carbon Capture And Storage Project. [online] www.prnewswire.com. Available at: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/honeywell-technology-enables-large-us-carbon-capture-and-storage-project-301266289.html [Accessed 14 Apr. 2021].
  43. www.offshore-mag.com. (n.d.). StackPath. [online] Available at: https://www.offshore-mag.com/pipelines/article/14200888/dnv-issues-guidance-on-carbon-capture-pipelines [Accessed 8 Apr. 2021].
  44. Sertin, C. (2021). DNV updates carbon capture and storage (CCS) recommended practice. [online] Oil & Gas. Available at: https://www.oilandgasmiddleeast.com/products-services/38109-dnv-updates-carbon-capture-and-storage-ccs-recommended-practice [Accessed 8 Apr. 2021].
  45. DNV. (2020). About DNV – DNV. [online] Available at: https://www.dnv.com/about/index.html.
  46. DNV. (2020). About DNV – DNV. [online] Available at: https://www.dnv.com/about/index.html.
  47. The Norwegian firm that tests the world’s ships. (2014). BBC News. [online] 21 Dec. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-30492838 [Accessed 8 Apr. 2021].
  48. Sertin, C. (2021). DNV updates carbon capture and storage (CCS) recommended practice. [online] Oil & Gas. Available at: https://www.oilandgasmiddleeast.com/products-services/38109-dnv-updates-carbon-capture-and-storage-ccs-recommended-practice [Accessed 8 Apr. 2021].
  49. Sertin, C. (2021). DNV updates carbon capture and storage (CCS) recommended practice. [online] Oil & Gas. Available at: https://www.oilandgasmiddleeast.com/products-services/38109-dnv-updates-carbon-capture-and-storage-ccs-recommended-practice [Accessed 8 Apr. 2021].
  50. www.offshore-mag.com. (n.d.). StackPath. [online] Available at: https://www.offshore-mag.com/pipelines/article/14200888/dnv-issues-guidance-on-carbon-capture-pipelines [Accessed 8 Apr. 2021].
  51. Carpenter, S. (n.d.). New Bills In U.S. Senate Would Bolster Efforts To Store Carbon Underground. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottcarpenter/2021/03/29/new-bills-in-us-senate-would-bolster-efforts-to-store-carbon-underground/?sh=585c24ba79d1 [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  52. OilPrice.com. (n.d.). Why The U.S. Senate Is Looking To Support Carbon Capture And Storage. [online] Available at: https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Why-The-US-Senate-Is-Looking-To-Support-Carbon-Capture-And-Storage.html [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  53. Carpenter, S. (n.d.). New Bills In U.S. Senate Would Bolster Efforts To Store Carbon Underground. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottcarpenter/2021/03/29/new-bills-in-us-senate-would-bolster-efforts-to-store-carbon-underground/?sh=585c24ba79d1 [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  54. OilPrice.com. (n.d.). Why The U.S. Senate Is Looking To Support Carbon Capture And Storage. [online] Available at: https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Why-The-US-Senate-Is-Looking-To-Support-Carbon-Capture-And-Storage.html [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  55. OilPrice.com. (n.d.). Why The U.S. Senate Is Looking To Support Carbon Capture And Storage. [online] Available at: https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Why-The-US-Senate-Is-Looking-To-Support-Carbon-Capture-And-Storage.html [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  56. Carpenter, S. (n.d.). New Bills In U.S. Senate Would Bolster Efforts To Store Carbon Underground. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottcarpenter/2021/03/29/new-bills-in-us-senate-would-bolster-efforts-to-store-carbon-underground/?sh=585c24ba79d1 [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  57. Carpenter, S. (n.d.). New Bills In U.S. Senate Would Bolster Efforts To Store Carbon Underground. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottcarpenter/2021/03/29/new-bills-in-us-senate-would-bolster-efforts-to-store-carbon-underground/?sh=585c24ba79d1 [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  58. OilPrice.com. (n.d.). Why The U.S. Senate Is Looking To Support Carbon Capture And Storage. [online] Available at: https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Why-The-US-Senate-Is-Looking-To-Support-Carbon-Capture-And-Storage.html [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  59. Carpenter, S. (n.d.). New Bills In U.S. Senate Would Bolster Efforts To Store Carbon Underground. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottcarpenter/2021/03/29/new-bills-in-us-senate-would-bolster-efforts-to-store-carbon-underground/?sh=585c24ba79d1 [Accessed 30 Mar. 2021].
  60. Laister, D. (2021). £33m boost for Humber’s carbon capture ambition as both projects backed by BEIS. [online] Business Live. Available at: https://www.business-live.co.uk/economic-development/34m-boost-humbers-grand-carbon-20187475 [Accessed 25 Mar. 2021].
  61. www.rigzone.com. (n.d.). Baker Hughes Signs Barents Sea Carbon Capture Deal. [online] Available at: https://www.rigzone.com/news/baker_hughes_signs_barents_sea_carbon_capture_deal-23-mar-2021-164961-article/ [Accessed 25 Mar. 2021].
  62. www.rigzone.com. (n.d.). Baker Hughes Signs Barents Sea Carbon Capture Deal. [online] Available at: https://www.rigzone.com/news/baker_hughes_signs_barents_sea_carbon_capture_deal-23-mar-2021-164961-article/ [Accessed 25 Mar. 2021].
  63. www.businesswire.com. (2021). Baker Hughes and Horisont Energi Sign MoU for Groundbreaking Offshore Barents Sea Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Project. [online] Available at: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210323005357/en/Baker-Hughes-and-Horisont-Energi-Sign-MoU-for-Groundbreaking-Offshore-Barents-Sea-Carbon-Capture-Transport-and-Storage-Project [Accessed 25 Mar. 2021].
  64. www.businesswire.com. (2021). Baker Hughes and Horisont Energi Sign MoU for Groundbreaking Offshore Barents Sea Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Project. [online] Available at: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210323005357/en/Baker-Hughes-and-Horisont-Energi-Sign-MoU-for-Groundbreaking-Offshore-Barents-Sea-Carbon-Capture-Transport-and-Storage-Project [Accessed 25 Mar. 2021].
  65. Hydrocarbon Engineering. (2021). UK awards funding to HyNet North West for “net zero” drive. [online] Available at: https://www.hydrocarbonengineering.com/the-environment/19032021/uk-awards-funding-to-hynet-north-west-for-net-zero-drive/ [Accessed 19 Mar. 2021].
  66. Energy Live News. (2021). “UK’s first” carbon capture project given £72m funding. [online] Available at: https://www.energylivenews.com/2021/03/17/uks-first-carbon-capture-project-given-72m-funding/ [Accessed 19 Mar. 2021].
  67. Energy Live News. (2021). “UK’s first” carbon capture project given £72m funding. [online] Available at: https://www.energylivenews.com/2021/03/17/uks-first-carbon-capture-project-given-72m-funding/ [Accessed 19 Mar. 2021].
  68. ETN. (2012). Carbon Capture And Storage Project Delays In Europe. [online] Available at: https://etn.global/news-and-events/carbon-capture-storage-project-delays-europe/ [Accessed 19 Mar. 2021].
  69. edie.net. (n.d.). Microsoft and Chevron partner on bioenergy and carbon capture project. [online] Available at: https://www.edie.net/news/8/Microsoft-and-Chevron-partner-on-bioenergy-and-carbon-capture-project/ [Accessed 19 Mar. 2021].
  70. SeekingAlpha. (n.d.). Schlumberger, Chevron, Microsoft to partner on carbon capture project. [online] Available at: https://seekingalpha.com/news/3669458-schlumberger-chevron-microsoft-to-partner-on-carbon-capture-project [Accessed 19 Mar. 2021].
  71. SeekingAlpha. (n.d.). Schlumberger, Chevron, Microsoft to partner on carbon capture project. [online] Available at: https://seekingalpha.com/news/3669458-schlumberger-chevron-microsoft-to-partner-on-carbon-capture-project [Accessed 19 Mar. 2021].
  72. www.mckinsey.com. (n.d.). The future of oil and gas is now: How companies can decarbonize | McKinsey. [online] Available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/oil-and-gas/our-insights/the-future-is-now-how-oil-and-gas-companies-can-decarbonize.
  73. www.mckinsey.com. (n.d.). The future of oil and gas is now: How companies can decarbonize | McKinsey. [online] Available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/oil-and-gas/our-insights/the-future-is-now-how-oil-and-gas-companies-can-decarbonize.
  74. IEA. (n.d.). CCUS in Clean Energy Transitions – Analysis. [online] Available at: https://www.iea.org/reports/ccus-in-clean-energy-transitions.
  75. IPCC (2018). Summary for Policymakers — Global Warming of 1.5 oC. [online] Ipcc.ch. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/chapter/spm/.
  76. United Nations Climate Change (2016). The Paris Agreement | UNFCCC. [online] Unfccc.int. Available at: https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement.
  77. IEA. (n.d.). CCUS in Clean Energy Transitions – Analysis. [online] Available at: https://www.iea.org/reports/ccus-in-clean-energy-transitions.
  78. www.energypolicy.columbia.edu. (n.d.). Columbia | SIPA Center on Global Energy Policy | Net-Zero and Geospheric Return: Actions Today for 2030 and Beyond. [online] Available at: https://www.energypolicy.columbia.edu/research/report/net-zero-and-geospheric-return-actions-today-2030-and-beyond.
  79. Rapier, R. (n.d.). Renewable Energy Growth Continues At A Blistering Pace. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/rrapier/2020/08/02/renewable-energy-growth-continues-at-a-blistering-pace/?sh=4f400df076b6 [Accessed 9 Mar. 2021].
  80. Rapier, R. (n.d.). Renewable Energy Growth Continues At A Blistering Pace. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/rrapier/2020/08/02/renewable-energy-growth-continues-at-a-blistering-pace/?sh=4f400df076b6 [Accessed 9 Mar. 2021].
  81. Rapier, R. (n.d.). Renewable Energy Growth Continues At A Blistering Pace. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/rrapier/2020/08/02/renewable-energy-growth-continues-at-a-blistering-pace/?sh=4f400df076b6 [Accessed 9 Mar. 2021].